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Sampling data, colony runfiles, VCFs, and Rscripts for: genomic determination of reproductive mode in facultatively parthenogenetic Opiliones

Citation

Burns, Mercedes; Tsurusaki, Nobuo; Brown, Tyler (2020), Sampling data, colony runfiles, VCFs, and Rscripts for: genomic determination of reproductive mode in facultatively parthenogenetic Opiliones, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.prr4xgxk3

Abstract

Sexual reproduction may pose myriad short-term costs to females. Despite these costs, sexual reproduction is near ubiquitous. Facultative parthenogenesis is theorized to mitigate some of the costs of sex, as individuals can participate in occasional sex to limit costs while obtaining many benefits. However, most theoretical models assume sexual reproduction is fixed following mating, with no possibility of clutches of mixed reproductive ontogeny. Therefore, we asked: if coercive males are present at high frequency in a population of facultative parthenogens, will their clutches be solely sexually produced, or will there be evidence of sexually and asexually-produced offspring? How will their offspring production compare to conspecifics in low frequency male populations? We addressed our questions by collecting females and egg clutches of the facultatively parthenogenetic Opiliones species Leiobunum manubriatum and L. globosum. In L. manubriatum, females from populations with few males were not significantly more fecund than females from populations with higher male relative frequency, despite the potential release of the former from sexual conflict. We used three genotyping methods along with a custom set of DNA capture probes to reveal that offspring of L. manubriatum from these high male populations were primarily produced via asexual reproduction. This is surprising because sex ratios in these southern populations approach equality, increasing the probability for females to encounter mates and produce offspring sexually. We additionally found evidence for reproductive polymorphisms within populations. Rapid and accurate SNP genotyping data will continue to allow us to address broader evolutionary questions regarding the role of facultative reproductive modes in the maintenance of sex.