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Data From: Phylogenomics reveals accelerated late Cretaceous diversification of bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae)

Citation

Li, Xuankun et al. (2021), Data From: Phylogenomics reveals accelerated late Cretaceous diversification of bee flies (Diptera: Bombyliidae), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.q2bvq83h9

Abstract

Bombyliidae is a very species-rich and widespread family of parasitoid flies with more than 250 genera classified into 17 extant subfamilies. However, little is known about their evolutionary history or how their present-day diversity was shaped. Transcriptomes of 15 species and anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE) sequence captures of 86 species, representing 94 bee fly species and 14 subfamilies, were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Bombyliidae. We integrated data from transcriptomes across each of the main lineages in our AHE tree to build a data set with more genes (550 loci versus 216 loci) and higher support levels. Our overall results show strong congruence with the current classification of the family, with 11 out of 14 included subfamilies recovered as monophyletic. Heterotropinae and Mythicomyiinae are successive sister groups to the remainder of the family. We examined the evolution of key morphological characters through our phylogenetic hypotheses and show that neither the “sand chamber subfamilies” nor the “Tomophthalmae” are monophyletic in our phylogenomic analyses. Based on our results, we reinstate two tribes at the subfamily level (Phthiriinae stat. rev. and Ecliminae stat. rev.) and we include the genus Sericosoma Macquart (previously incertae sedis) in the subfamily Oniromyiinae, bringing the total number of bee fly subfamilies to 19. Our dating analyses indicate a Jurassic origin of the family (165–194 Ma), with the sand chamber evolving early in bee fly evolution, in the late Jurassic or mid-Cretaceous (100–165 Ma). We hypothesize that the angiosperm radiation and the hothouse climate established during the late Cretaceous accelerated the diversification of bee flies, by providing an expanded range of resources for the parasitoid larvae and nectarivorous adults.

Funding

Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Award: Proc. No. 302751/2019-0

National Research Foundation, South Africa, Award: NRF:FBIP grant #110440

National Research Foundation, South Africa, Award: NRF:FBIP grant #110440