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Data for collected samples and mating experiment of Acilius Japonicus

Citation

Kiyokawa, Ryo; Ikeda, Hiroshi (2022), Data for collected samples and mating experiment of Acilius Japonicus, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.qbzkh18jv

Abstract

Previous studies have predicted that antagonistic intraspecific evolution of sexually dimorphic characters causing rapid speciation can be driven by demographic history and environmental variations. However, researchers have rarely examined this issue in the wild. Here, we examined intraspecific evolution of sexually dimorphic characters and its driving force by using a diving beetle, Acilius japonicus, which has very marked sexually dimorphic characters. Males with wider big suction cups could copulate with females with a higher success rate, whereas the mating durations of females with more hairs on their pronota were shorter. Females in a region with greater interpopulation genetic differentiation had more pronotal hairs. Considering that a previous study showed that less continuity among populations leads to a higher female cost of mating, this result suggests a greater female cost of mating in this region. Females at warmer sites also had more pronotal hairs. In light of the increase in O2 consumption in warmer water, our result suggests that more pronotal hairs in females at warmer sites have been maintained to prevent prolonged underwater mating at higher O2 demand. These findings suggest that demographic history and temperature can direct the evolution of sexually dimorphic characters related to sexual conflict in females.

Funding

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 17K15189, 19H03296