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Data from: Phylogenetic relationships, breeding implications, and cultivation history of Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) through genome-wide SNP genotyping

Citation

Helmkampf, Martin et al. (2017), Data from: Phylogenetic relationships, breeding implications, and cultivation history of Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) through genome-wide SNP genotyping, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.r35kr

Abstract

Taro, Colocasia esculenta, is one of the world’s oldest root crops and of particular economic and cultural significance in Hawai‘i, where historically more than 150 different landraces were grown. We developed a genome-wide set of more than 2400 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 70 taro accessions of Hawaiian, South Pacific, Palauan, and mainland Asian origins, with several objectives: (a) uncover the phylogenetic relationships between Hawaiian and other Pacific landraces, (b) shed light on the history of taro cultivation in Hawai‘i, and (c) develop a tool to discriminate among Hawaiian and other taros. We found that almost all existing Hawaiian landraces fall into five monophyletic groups that are largely consistent with the traditional Hawaiian classification based on morphological characters, e.g., leaf shape and petiole color. Genetic diversity was low within these clades but considerably higher between them. Population structure analyses further indicated that the diversification of taro in Hawai‘i most likely occurred by a combination of frequent somatic mutation and occasional hybridization. Unexpectedly, the South Pacific accessions were found nested within the clades mainly composed of Hawaiian accessions, rather than paraphyletic to them. This suggests that the origin of clades identified here preceded the colonization of Hawai‘i, and that early Polynesian settlers brought taro landraces from different clades with them. In the absence of a sequenced genome, this marker set provides a valuable resource towards obtaining a genetic linkage map, and to study the genetic basis of phenotypic traits of interest to taro breeding such as disease resistance.

Usage Notes

Funding

National Science Foundation, Award: 1345247

Location

Pacific