Data from: Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history
Zwoinska, Martyna Katarzyna et al. (2016), Data from: Selection on learning performance results in the correlated evolution of sexual dimorphism in life history, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.r4g6p
The evolution of learning can be constrained by trade-offs. As male and female life-histories often diverge, the relationship between learning and fitness may differ between the sexes. However, because sexes share much of their genome, intersexual genetic correlations can prevent males and females from reaching their sex-specific optima resulting in intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC). To investigate if IaSC constraints sex-specific evolution of learning we selected Caenorhabditis remanei nematode females for increased or decreased olfactory learning performance and measured learning, lifespan (in mated and virgin worms), reproduction and locomotory activity in both sexes. Males from downward-selected female lines had higher locomotory activity and longer virgin lifespan but sired fewer progeny than males from upward-selected female lines. In contrast, we found no effect of selection on female reproduction and downward-selected females showed higher locomotory activity but lived shorter as virgins than upward-selected females. Strikingly, selection on learning performance led to the reversal of sexual dimorphism in virgin lifespan. We thus show sex-specific trade-offs between learning, reproduction and lifespan. Our results support the hypothesis that selection on learning performance can shape the evolution of sexually dimorphic life-histories via sex-specific genetic correlations.