Data from: Out in the cold and sick: low temperatures and fungal infections impair a frog's skin defenses
Robak, Matthew J; Reinert, Laura; Rollins-Smith, Louise; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L (2019), Data from: Out in the cold and sick: low temperatures and fungal infections impair a frog's skin defenses, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rd736bd
Amphibians worldwide continue to battle an emerging infectious disease, chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, are known to become infected with this pathogen, yet they are considered 'of least concern' for declines due to chytridiomycosis. Previous studies have shown that R. sphenocephala secretes four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) onto their skin which may play an important role in limiting susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. Here we examined the (1) effects of temperature and AMP depletion on infections with Bd and (2) effects of temperature and Bd infection on the capacity to secrete AMPs in juvenile leopard frogs. Pathogen burden and mortality were greater in frogs exposed to Bd at low temperature but did not increase following monthly AMP depletion. Both low temperature and Bd exposure reduced the capacity of juvenile frogs to restore peptides after monthly depletions. Frogs held at 14°C were poorly able to restore peptides in comparison with those at 26°C. Frogs held at 26°C were better able to restore their peptides, but when exposed to Bd, this capacity was significantly reduced. These results strongly support the hypothesis that both colder temperatures and Bd infections impair the capacity of juvenile frogs to produce and secrete AMPs, an important component of their innate defense against chytrid fungi and other pathogens. Thus, in the face of unpredictable climate changes and enzootic pathogens, assessments of disease risk should consider the potential for effects of environmental variation and pathogen exposure on the quality of host defenses.
National Science Foundation, Award: 1649443, 1557634, 1121758