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Multituberculate mammals from the Middle Jurassic of Western Siberia, Russia, and the origin of Multituberculata

Citation

Averianov, Alexander O. et al. (2020), Multituberculate mammals from the Middle Jurassic of Western Siberia, Russia, and the origin of Multituberculata, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rfj6q5776

Abstract

Tashtykia primaeva gen. et sp. nov. and Tagaria antiqua gen. et sp. nov. (Multituberculata incertae sedis) are described based on isolated teeth from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Itat Formation from the Berezovsk coal mine in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Western Siberia, Russia. Tashtykia primaeva gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by a P5 with three rows of cusps (cusp formula 2B:4M:6L) and a high sectorial p4 with two triangular lobes, five serrations associated with labial and lingual ridges, and a unique distal cusp. Tagaria antiqua gen. et sp. nov. differs from all other multituberculates by a very long P5 with flat crown and many cusps arranged in three rows (4B:6M:7L). Morphologically the teeth of Kermackodon and Megaconus are transitional between Euharamiyida and Middle Jurassic Multituberculata. Kermackodon shares several characteristics with Euharamiyida, such as pointed cusps on the molars connected by longitudinal ridges, a distolabial cusp on the M2 that is higher than the other cusps, and a single large sectorial premolar (p4) with a distal basin. The euharamiyidan characters of Megaconus are an ultimate upper premolar with a shorter lingual side, a p4 with a distal basin, and one cusp on the molars being larger than the other cusps. In addition, Megaconus shares an ultimate upper premolar with three rows of cusps, horizontal wear on the molars, and pyramidal cusps on the molars separated by transverse grooves with multituberculates. The multituberculate characters of Kermackodon include horizontal rather than basined wear on the surface of the molars and serrations on the p4.

Methods

Specimen PIN 5087/108 was scanned with a resolution of 3.94 μm using the 180 kV x-ray tube of the v|tome|x s μCT device (GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies GmbH phoenix|x-ray) housed in the Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Bonn, Germany. Scan settings were 90 kV and 90 μA with a shutter speed of 400 ms per capture. The instrument produced isotropic voxels, and the single image size is 1024 × 1024 pixels. Specimens LMCCE 010/2 and LMCCE 010/4 were both scanned at a resolution of 2.82 µm using the 180 kV x-ray tube and scan settings were 80 kV and 110 µA with a capture timing of 1000 ms (the machine has since been improved now producing an image size of 2048 x 2048). Avizo 8 (Thermo Fisher Scientific) was used for segmentation and creating surface models. Polyworks 2014 (innovmetric) was used to smooth the surface in case of LMCCE 010/4 using the Gouraud filter function (at correction levels 0.1 and 0.3), and for the reduction of data sizes.

Funding

Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Award: MA 1643/14-1, 3

Russian Foundation for Basic Research, Award: 11-04-91331-NNIO

Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Award: 5.4217.2017/4.6

Russian Science Foundation, Award: 19-14-00020

Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Award: АААА-А17-117022810195-3

Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung, Award: Humboldt Research Award

Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Award: АААА-А17-117022810195-3