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Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States

Citation

McMillan, Joseph; Armstrong, Philip; Andreadis, Theodore (2020), Patterns of mosquito and arbovirus community composition and ecological indexes of arboviral risk in the northeast United States, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rjdfn2z6x

Abstract

Background: In the northeast United States (U.S.), mosquitoes transmit a number of arboviruses, including eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, and West Nile that pose an annual threat to human and animal health. Local transmission of each virus may be driven by the involvement of multiple mosquito species; however, the specificity of these vector-virus associations has not been fully quantified. Methodology: We used long-term surveillance data consistently collected over 18 years to evaluate mosquito and arbovirus community composition in the State of Connecticut (CT) based on land cover classifications and mosquito species-specific natural histories using community ecology approaches available in the R package vegan. We then used binomial-error generalized linear mixed effects models (GLMMs) to quantify species-specific trends in arbovirus detections. Primary Results: The composition of mosquito communities throughout CT varied more among sites than among years, with variation in mosquito community composition among sites explained mostly by a forested-to-developed-land-cover gradient. Arboviral communities varied equally among sites and years, and only developed and forested wetland land cover classifications were associated with the composition of arbovirus detections among sites. Overall, the avian host arboviruses, mainly West Nile and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, displayed the most specific associations among species and sites, while in contrast, the mammalian host arboviruses (including Cache Valley, Jamestown Canyon, and Potosi viruses) associated with a more diverse mix of mosquito species and were widely distributed throughout CT. Conclusions: We find that avian arboviruses act as vector specialists infecting a few key mosquito species that associate with discrete habitats, while mammalian arboviruses are largely vector generalists infecting a wide diversity of mosquito species and habitats in the region. These distinctions have important implications for the design and implementation of mosquito and arbovirus surveillance programs as well as mosquito control efforts. 

Methods

This data was collected as a part of the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station's statewide mosquito and arbovirus surveillance efforts from 2001 to 2018. The data is restricted to mosquito collections and subsequent arbovirus detections obtained through the use of CO2-baited light traps and gravid traps at surveillance sites sampled in all years. Briefly, the data was analysed using Arc GIS, functions available in the R package vegan, and generalized linear mixed effects models. Please see the manuscript for specific methodologies and data restrictions.

Usage Notes

To use this data set, someone would need working knowledge of ArcMap and R (or equivalent softwares); specific usage of each program is described in the associated manuscript. A solid foundation in disease ecology and statistical analyses is also recommended.