Data from: Range instability leads to cytonuclear discordance in a morphologically cryptic ground squirrel species complex
Phuong, Mark A.; Bi, Ke; Moritz, Craig (2017), Data from: Range instability leads to cytonuclear discordance in a morphologically cryptic ground squirrel species complex, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rp011
The processes responsible for cytonuclear discordance frequently remain unclear. Here, we employed an exon capture dataset and demographic methods to test hypotheses generated by species distribution models to examine how contrasting histories of range stability vs. fluctuation have caused cytonuclear concordance and discordance in ground squirrel lineages from the Otospermophilus beecheyi species complex. Previous studies in O. beecheyi revealed three morphologically cryptic and highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages (named the Northern, Central, and Southern lineages based on geography) with only the Northern lineage exhibiting concordant divergence for nuclear genes. Here, we showed that these mtDNA lineages likely formed in allopatry during the Pleistocene, but responded differentially to climatic changes that occurred since the last interglacial (~120,000 years ago). We find that the Northern lineage maintained a stable range throughout this period, correlating with genetic distinctiveness among all genetic markers and low migration rates with the other lineages. In contrast, our results suggested that the Southern lineage expanded from Baja California Sur during the Late Pleistocene to overlap and potentially swamp a contracting Central lineage. High rates of intraspecific gene flow between Southern lineage individuals among expansion origin and expansion edge populations largely eroded Central ancestry from autosomal markers. However, male-biased dispersal in this system preserved signals of this past hybridization and introgression event in matrilineal-biased X-chromosome and mtDNA markers. Our results highlight the importance of range stability in maintaining the persistence of phylogeographic lineages, whereas unstable range dynamics can increase the tendency for lineages to merge upon secondary contact.
Western North America