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Shell colour diversification induced by ecological release: a shift in natural selection after a migration event

Citation

Ito, Shun; Hirano, Takahiro; Chiba, Satoshi; Konuma, Junji (2022), Shell colour diversification induced by ecological release: a shift in natural selection after a migration event, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rr4xgxd8v

Abstract

Ecological release is often attributed to the rapid adaptive diversification of phenotypic traits. However, it is not well understood how natural selection changes its strength and direction through the process of ecological release. Herein, we demonstrated how shell colour of the Japanese land snail Euhadra peliomphala simodae has diversified via a shift in natural selection due to ecological release after migration from the mainland to an island. This snail’s shell colour diversified on the island due to disruptive selection after migration from the mainland. We used trail-camera traps to identify the cause of natural selection on both the mainland and island. We then conducted a mark-recapture experiment while collecting microhabitat use data. In total, we captured and marked around 1700 snails on the mainland, some of which were preyed upon by an unknown predator. The trail-camera traps showed that the predator is the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus, and the predatory frequency was higher on the mainland than on the island. However, this predation did not correlate with shell colour. Microhabitat use on the island was more extensive than on the mainland, with snails on the island using both ground and arboreal microhabitats. A Bayesian estimation showed that the stabilising selection on shell colour came from factors other than predation. Our results suggest that the course of natural selection was modified due to ecological release after migration from the mainland, explaining one cause of the phenotypic diversification.

Funding

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 17K07573

Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Award: 18H02506