Genomic shifts, phenotypic clines and fitness costs associated with cold-tolerance in the Asian tiger mosquito
Sherpa, Stéphanie et al. (2022), Genomic shifts, phenotypic clines and fitness costs associated with cold-tolerance in the Asian tiger mosquito, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.rxwdbrvbg
Climatic variation is a key driver of genetic differentiation and phenotypic traits evolution, and local adaptation to temperature is expected in widespread species. We investigated phenotypic and genomic changes in the native range of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We first refine the phylogeographic structure based on genome-wide regions (1,901 double-digest restriction-site associated DNA single nucleotide polymophisms [ddRAD SNPs]) from 41 populations. We then explore the patterns of cold adaptation using phenotypic traits measured in common garden (wing size and cold tolerance) and genotype–temperature associations at targeted candidate regions (51,706 exon-capture SNPs) from nine populations. We confirm the existence of three evolutionary lineages including clades A (Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos), B (China and Okinawa), and C (South Korea and Japan). We identified temperature-associated differentiation in 15 out of 221 candidate regions but none in ddRAD regions, supporting the role of directional selection in detected genes. These include genes involved in lipid metabolism and a circadian clock gene. Most outlier SNPs are differently fixed between clades A and C, whereas clade B has an intermediate pattern. Females are larger at higher latitudes yet produce no more eggs, which might favor the storage of energetic reserves in colder climates. Nondiapausing eggs from temperate populations survive better to cold exposure than those from tropical populations, suggesting they are protected from freezing damages but this cold tolerance has a fitness cost in terms of egg viability. Altogether, our results provide strong evidence for the thermal adaptation of A. albopictus across its wide temperature range.