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Data From: Fit and fatty freshwater fish: Contrasting polyunsaturated fatty acid phenotypes between hybridizing stickleback lineages

Citation

Hudson, Cameron et al. (2021), Data From: Fit and fatty freshwater fish: Contrasting polyunsaturated fatty acid phenotypes between hybridizing stickleback lineages, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.s4mw6m969

Abstract

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are biologically important lipids that are unevenly distributed between and throughout environments. This heterogeneity can affect the evolution of metabolic processes, as populations adapt to the resource landscape that they encounter. Here, we compare fatty acid phenotypes of stickleback over two time scales of evolutionary divergence: between two lineages with different metabolic capacities for fatty acid synthesis (i.e. different copy number of the fatty acid desaturase gene; FADS2) that independently colonized European freshwaters during the Pleistocene and Holocene; and between two ecotypes within each lineage that have diverged more recently (~150 years) in different habitats (i.e. lake and stream). We measured fatty acid profiles of wild-caught and lab-reared fish for each lineage and ecotype combination after rearing lab fish on a diet deficient in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since these lineages hybridize in nature, we also measured profiles of lab-reared hybrids and backcrosses raised on the same deficient diet. Wild fish showed strong compositional differences in fatty acids between habitats, lineages, and sexes. Common garden fish had generally lower polyunsaturated fatty acid levels than wild fish, and females had lower omega-6:omega-3 than males. Fish from the lineage with fewer FADS2 copies also had lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid. Overall, we document divergence in fatty acid phenotypes between stickleback lineages with different histories of freshwater colonization, and between ecotypes in the early stages of adaptive population divergence.

Methods

This dataset is split into five parts. Parts one and two are composed of data on the omega-3 fatty acid content of invertebrate prey (part one), and FADS2 copy number variation of threespine stickleback (part two) collected from previously published works. Part three is the main dataset used in the manuscript, containing fatty acid profiles of lab raised and wild caught threespine stickleback. These fatty acid profiles were produced from GC-MS of lipids extracted from freeze dried muscle tissue. Parts four and five are subsets of the main dataset that were used in analysis and the production of figures for the manuscript. 

Funding

Swiss National Science Foundation, Award: PDFMP3_134657

Swiss National Science Foundation, Award: 31003A_175614

European Regional Development Fund