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Phenology of Lupinus polyphyllus from Central to Northern Europe

Cite this dataset

Ludewig, Kristin et al. (2022). Phenology of Lupinus polyphyllus from Central to Northern Europe [Dataset]. Dryad.


Plant phenology, i. e. the timing of life cycle events, is related to individual fitness and species distribution ranges. Among the environmental factors, phenology is mostly driven by temperature and day length. Rapid adaptation of their phenology may also be important for the success of invasive plant species. Our main aim was to understand how the performance, timing, and temperature dependence of the phenology of the invasive legume Lupinus polyphyllus varies with latitude. L. polyphyllus is one of the most frequent invasive species in Europe, and the gained information may help to make management more effective by adjustments to latitude and phenology.


We quantified variation in phenology across a >2000 km latitudinal gradient from Central to Northern Europe. We sampled data of flowering and fruiting of L. polyphyllus using >1600 digital photos of inflorescences from 220 individual plants observed weekly at 22 locations. We calculated the accumulated growing degree days for each observation date at each site from the temperature data of the meteorological stations, which are listed in the metadata of the dataset.