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Data from: Oral Cancer: clinical presentation and associated risk factors in a high risk population presenting to a major tertiary care center in Pakistan

Citation

Anwar, Namrah et al. (2020), Data from: Oral Cancer: clinical presentation and associated risk factors in a high risk population presenting to a major tertiary care center in Pakistan , Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.t76hdr7z0

Abstract

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has the highest prevalence in head and neck cancers and is the first and second most common cancer in males and females of Pakistan respectively. Major risk factors include peculiar chewing habits like areca nut, betel quid, and tobacco. The majority of OSCC presents at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. On the face of such a high burden of this preventable cancer, there is a relative lack of recent robust data and its association with known risk factors from Pakistan. The aim of this study was to identify the socioeconomic factors and clinicopathological features that may contribute to the development of OSCC. A total of 186 patients diagnosed and treated at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi Pakistan were recruited. Clinicopathological and socioeconomic information was obtained on a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was done for demographics and socioeconomic status (SES) while regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between SES and chewing habits, tumor site, and tumor stage. The majority of patients were males and the mean age of OSCC patients was 47.62±12.18 years. Most of the patients belonged to low SES (68.3%) and 77.4% were habitual of chewing. Gender (male) and SES were significantly associated with chewing habits (p<0.05). Odds of developing buccal mucosa tumors in chewers (of any type of substance) and gutka users were 2 and 4 times higher than non-chewers respectively. Middle age, chewing habits, and occupation were significantly associated with late stage presentation of OSCC (p<0.05). In conclusion, male patients belonging to low SES in their forties who had chewing habits for years constituted the bulk of OSCC. Buccal mucosa was the most common site in chewers and the majority presented with late stage tumors.

Methods

The list of OSCC patients was obtained and initial information of 195 patients about medical record number, patient contact information, tumor site, and date of the surgery was gathered from the list obtained and screening of patients was done as per inclusion criteria. Detailed pathology reports were reviewed to acquire information regarding tumor stage, grade, and site. Socio-demographic details including, age, marital status, location, educational level, occupation, social status, chewing habits, history of cancer in the family, frequency of chewing and, type of chewing substance were directly collected from patients on a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package 20 (IBM, Rochester, USA) for the association of variables.