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Frequent paternal mitochondrial inheritance and rapid haplotype frequency shifts in copepod hybrids

Citation

Willett, Christopher; Lee, Jeeyun (2021), Frequent paternal mitochondrial inheritance and rapid haplotype frequency shifts in copepod hybrids, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.t76hdr828

Abstract

Mitochondria are assumed to be maternally inherited in most animal species, and this foundational concept has fostered advances in phylogenetics, conservation, and population genetics. Like other animals, mitochondria were thought to be solely maternally inherited in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, which has served as a useful model for studying mitonuclear interactions, hybrid breakdown, and environmental tolerance. However, we present PCR, Sanger sequencing, and Illumina Nextera sequencing evidence that extensive paternal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission is occurring in inter-population hybrids of T. californicus. PCR on four types of crosses between three populations (total sample size of 376 F1 individuals) with 20% genome-wide mitochondrial divergence showed 2% to 59% of F1 hybrids with both paternal and maternal mtDNA, where low and high paternal leakage values were found in different cross directions of the same population pairs. Sequencing methods further verified nucleotide similarities between F1 mtDNA and paternal mtDNA sequences. Interestingly, the paternal mtDNA in F1s from some crosses inherited haplotypes that were uncommon in the paternal population. Compared to some previous research on paternal leakage, we employed more rigorous methods to rule out contamination and false detection of paternal mtDNA due to non-functional nuclear mitochondrial DNA fragments. Our results raise the potential that other animal systems thought to only inherit maternal mitochondria may also have paternal leakage, which would then affect the interpretation of past and future population genetics or phylogenetic studies that rely on mitochondria as uniparental markers.

Methods

ABscaffolds_trim.fasta: This file contains a genome assembly made with SPADES