Data from: Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism
Riutort, Marta et al. (2013), Data from: Insights into the origin and distribution of biodiversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot: a statistical phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.t9584
The relative importance of the processes that generate and maintain biodiversity is a major and controversial topic in evolutionary biology with large implications for conservation management. The Atlantic Forest of Brazil, one of the world's richest biodiversity hotspots, is severely damaged by human activities. To carry out an efficient conservation policy, a good understanding of spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns and their underlying evolutionary mechanisms is required. With this aim, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic study using a low-dispersal organism, the land planarian species Cephaloflexa bergi (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida). Applying a multi-locus DNA sequence variation approach under the ABC framework we evaluated two scenarios proposed to explain the diversity of SAF region. We found that most sampled localities harbour high levels of genetic diversity, with lineages sharing old common ancestors that predate the Pleistocene. Remarkably, we detected the molecular hallmark of the isolation-by-distance effect and little evidence of a recent colonization of SAF localities; some populations nevertheless might result from very recent secondary contacts. We conclude that extant SAF biodiversity originated and has been shaped by complex interactions between ancient geological events and more recent evolutionary processes, while Pleistocene climate changes would have a minor influence in generating present day diversity. We also demonstrate that land planarians are an advantageous biological model for making phylogeographic and, particularly, fine-scale evolutionary inferences, and propose appropiate conservation policies.