Data from: Complex phylogeographic patterns indicate Central American origin of two widespread Mesoamerican Quercus (Fagaceae) species
Rodríguez-Correa, Hernando et al. (2018), Data from: Complex phylogeographic patterns indicate Central American origin of two widespread Mesoamerican Quercus (Fagaceae) species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.v5g0p
The northern Neotropical region is characterized by a heterogeneous geological and climatic history. Recent studies have shown contrasting patterns regarding the role of geographic elements as barriers that could have determined phylogeographic structure in various species. Recently, the phylogeography and biogeography of Quercus species have been studied intensively, and the patterns observed so far suggest contrasting evolutionary histories for Neotropical species in comparison with their Holarctic relatives. The goal of this study was to describe the phylogeographic structure of two Neotropical oak species (Quercus insignis and Quercus sapotifolia) in the context of the geological and palaeoclimatic history of the northern Neotropics. Populations through the distribution range of both species were collected and characterized using nine chloroplast DNA microsatellite loci. Both oak species showed high levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure. The distribution of genetic variation in Q. insignis suggested an influence of two major barriers, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression, while Q. sapotifolia exhibited a genetic structure defined by the heterogeneity of the Chortis highlands. The haplotype networks of both species indicated complex histories, suggesting that colonization from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas to central Mexico and from the north of the Nicaraguan Depression to the Costa Rican mountains may have occurred during different stages, and apparently more than one time. In conclusion, the phylogeographic structure of Neotropical oak species seems to be defined by a combination of geological and climatic events.