From antagonism to synergism: extreme differences in stressor interactions in one species
Straub, Lars (2021), From antagonism to synergism: extreme differences in stressor interactions in one species, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.v9s4mw6r7
Interactions between stressors are involved in the decline of wild species and losses of managed ones. Those interactions are often assumed to be synergistic, and per se of the same nature, even though susceptibility can vary within a single species. However, empirical measures of interaction effects across levels of susceptibility remain scarce. Here, we show clear evidence for extreme differences in stressor interactions ranging from antagonism to synergism within honeybees, Apis mellifera. While female honeybee workers exposed to both malnutrition and the pathogen Nosema ceranae showed synergistic interactions and increased stress, male drones showed antagonistic interactions and decreased stress. Most likely sex and division of labor in the social insects underlie these findings. It appears inevitable to empirically test the actual nature of stressor interactions across a range of susceptibility factors within a single species, before drawing general conclusions.