Data from: Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids
Astudillo-Clavijo, Viviana; Arbour, Jessica H.; López-Fernández, Hernán (2015), Data from: Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vm263
Background: Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a broad adaptive landscape. However only a handful of studies have actually investigated the adaptive landscape and its implication for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fishes the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification during an adaptive radiation given its implications for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine cichlids represent a newly identified adaptive radiation and provide a useful system for studying patterns of locomotor diversification and the implications of selective constraints on phenotypic divergence in general. Results: We use multivariate ordination models of phenotypic evolution and posterior predictive approaches to investigate the adaptive landscape and test for evidence of early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in Geophagini. The evolution of locomotor phenotypes was characterized by divergent selection towards two distinct adaptive peaks and the early divergence of modern morphological disparity. Evolutionary models and posterior predictive approaches favoured constant-rate divergent selection over decreasing rates of phenotypic evolution as the underlying process driving the early divergence of locomotor phenotypes. Conclusions: The influence of multiple adaptive peaks on the divergence of locomotor attributes in Geophagini is compatible with the expectations of an ecologically-driven adaptive radiation. This study confirms that the diversification of locomotor morphology represents an important dimension of phenotypic evolution in the geophagine adaptive radiation. It also suggests that the commonly observed early burst of phenotypic evolution during adaptive radiations is best explained by a model that incorporates divergent selection deep in the phylogeny.