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Phase resolution of heterozygous sites in diploid genomes is important to phylogenomic analysis under the multispecies coalescent model

Citation

Yang, Ziheng et al. (2021), Phase resolution of heterozygous sites in diploid genomes is important to phylogenomic analysis under the multispecies coalescent model, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vmcvdncrd

Abstract

Genome sequencing projects routinely generate haploid consensus sequences from diploid genomes, which are effectively chimeric sequences with the phase at heterozygous sites resolved at random. The impact of phasing errors on phylogenomic analyses under the multispecies coalescent (MSC) model is largely unknown. Here we conduct a computer simulation to evaluate the performance of four phase-resolution strategies (the true phase resolution, the diploid analytical integration algorithm which averages over all phase resolutions, computational phase resolution using the program PHASE, and random resolution) on estimation of the species tree and evolutionary parameters in analysis of multi-locus genomic data under the MSC model. We found that species tree estimation is robust to phasing errors when species divergences were much older than average coalescent times but may be affected by phasing errors when the species tree is shallow. Estimation of parameters under the MSC model with and without introgression is affected by phasing errors. In particular, random phase resolution causes serious overestimation of population sizes for modern species and biased estimation of cross-species introgression probability. In general the impact of phasing errors is greater when the mutation rate is higher, the data include more samples per species, and the species tree is shallower with recent divergences. Use of phased sequences inferred by the PHASE program produced small biases in parameter estimates. We analyze two real datasets, one of East Asian brown frogs and another of Rocky Mountains chipmunks, to demonstrate that heterozygote phase-resolution strategies have similar impacts on practical data analyses. We suggest that genome sequencing projects should produce unphased diploid genotype sequences if fully phased data are too challenging to generate, and avoid haploid consensus sequences, which have heterozygous sites phased at random. In case the analytical integration algorithm is computationally unfeasible, computational phasing prior to population genomic analyses is an acceptable alternative. 

Methods

Simulation

Funding

Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Award: BB/P006493/1