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The last representatives of the Superfamily Wellerelloidea (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellida) in the westernmost Tethys (Iberian paleomargins) prior to their demise in the Early Toarcian Mass Extinction Event

Citation

Baeza Carratalá, José Francisco; García Joral, Fernando (2022), The last representatives of the Superfamily Wellerelloidea (Brachiopoda, Rhynchonellida) in the westernmost Tethys (Iberian paleomargins) prior to their demise in the Early Toarcian Mass Extinction Event, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vmcvdncvr

Abstract

The last clade-level extinction episode affecting the Phylum Brachiopoda has been long-established in the Early Toarcian Mass Extinction Event (ETMEE) around the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition, when several rhynchonellide groups became extinct and others underwent a notable renewal in the western Tethys. Among them, Wellerelloidea is a long-range superfamily severely affected by this environmental crisis, embodying the subfamily Cirpinae as the last wellerelloids worldwide, prior to their global extinction in the Pb-To transition. The profuse record of Lower Jurassic cirpines in the peri-Iberian paleomargins provides an opportunity to clarify the taxonomy of wellerelloid species in the pre-extinction interval. A new species (Cirpa lucentina) is erected and the revision of the Cirpinae taxa around the ETMEE is carried out. Morphometric analysis and the study of internal structures of the shells support the splitting between the genera Cirpa and Salgirella, adding new supplementary diagnostic criteria. The biogeographic distribution of this clade in the western Tethys and its evolutionary history in the Early Jurassic reveal a pervasive colonization pattern of both epicontinental and epioceanic habitats. The Mediterranean origin of the last representatives of this group is ascertained, but while diversification of Salgirella took place in epioceanic habitats, speciation of Cirpa is unrelated to biochorema boundaries, even colonizing epicontinental seas until their extinction prior to the hyperwarming event that occurred in the basal Serpentinum Zone. A rhynchonellide morphogroup epitomized by cirpines was resilient to this event in the epicontinental seas. This morphogroup is also recorded after the extinction interval by means of the genus Pseudogibbirhynchia, thus postulating potential pre- and post-extinction phyletic relationships.

Methods

- Field sampling

- Repositories

- Main Biometric parameters and indices

Funding