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Data from: Ecological speciation in European whitefish is driven by a large‐gaped predator

Citation

Öhlund, Gunnar et al. (2020), Data from: Ecological speciation in European whitefish is driven by a large‐gaped predator, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.vt4b8gtpc

Abstract

Lake‐dwelling fish that form species pairs/flocks characterized by body size divergence are important model systems for speciation research. Although several sources of divergent selection have been identified in these systems, their importance for driving the speciation process remains elusive. A major problem is that in retrospect, we cannot distinguish selection pressures that initiated divergence from those acting later in the process. To address this issue, we studied the initial stages of speciation in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) using data from 358 populations of varying age (26–10,000 years). We find that whitefish speciation is driven by a large‐growing predator, the northern pike (Esox lucius). Pike initiates divergence by causing a largely plastic differentiation into benthic giants and pelagic dwarfs: ecotypes that will subsequently develop partial reproductive isolation and heritable differences in gill raker number. Using an eco‐evolutionary model, we demonstrate how pike's habitat specificity and large gape size are critical for imposing a between‐habitat trade‐off, causing prey to mature in a safer place or at a safer size. Thereby, we propose a novel mechanism for how predators may cause dwarf/giant speciation in lake‐dwelling fish species.

Methods

The data has been collected using interviews with local fishers and gillnet sampling. A description of the data and our analyses can be found in each sheet of the uploaded excel file.

Usage Notes

A description of the data and our analyses can be found in each sheet of the uploaded excel file.

Funding

Swedish Research Council, Award: #2013‐5110

BiodivERsA, Award: #2012‐1826

Göran Gustafssons Stiftelse för Natur och miljö i Lappland

Svenska Forskningsrådet Formas, Award: #2007‐1149

Swedish Research Council, Award: #2013‐5110

BiodivERsA, Award: #2012‐1826

Göran Gustafssons Stiftelse för Natur och miljö i Lappland