Coexistence of predators in time: effects of season and prey availability on species activity within a Mediterranean carnivore guild
Vilella, Marc; Ferrandiz-Rovira, Mariona; Sayol, Ferran (2020), Coexistence of predators in time: effects of season and prey availability on species activity within a Mediterranean carnivore guild, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.w6m905qn8
1. The degree of coexistence among predators can determine the structure of ecological communities. Niche partitioning is a common strategy applied by species to enhance their coexistence. Diet, habitat or time use can be responsible for segregation among carnivore species, the latter factor being the least studied in Mediterranean ecosystems. Terrestrial medium-sized carnivores (i.e. mesocarnivores) carry out important functions in ecosystems and identifying their interactions is essential for their conservation.
2. In this study, we explore the activity of a terrestrial mesocarnivore guild in order to determine seasonal differences on daily activity patterns of competitors and prey. We also investigate how the abundance of a common mesocarnivore prey in the region, small mammals, influences the activity of predators.
3. During a year, camera trap devices (n=18) were installed in Montseny Natural Park (Catalan Pre-Coastal Range, Nort-East Iberian Peninsula), a region that hosts five mesocarnivore species. Camera trapping detections were used to estimate their daily activity patterns and corresponding overlaps. We also surveyed small mammal plots (n=5) in order to calculate prey abundance and test its effect on the relative activity of each carnivore species.
4. Despite all target mesocarnivores are mainly nocturnal, the activity overlap among them varies according to species particularities and season. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) appears as a generalist species in terms of time use, whereas stone marten (Martes foina) and genet (Genetta genetta) show the most similar activity patterns and both of them seem to be positively influenced by small mammal abundance. Overall, the diversity found in the way mesocarnivore species use time could facilitate their coexistence.
5. Despite activity pattern similarities among carnivore species should not be directly translated to negative interactions, they can have a strong influence in habitat and resource-limited ecosystems. Therefore, activity overlaps should be taken into account when discussing wildlife management actions.
Table 1. It includes camera trap data, showing each mesocarnivore and small mammal contact indicating site, season, date and time of the corresponding picture.
Table 2. It includes the Relative Activity Indices (RAI) of each species per site and season (RAI is expressed as the number of contacts per 100 sampling days).
Table 3. It includes the number of small mammal individuals of each species captured in the five small mammal plots.
H2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, Award: 838998