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Beyond Buddhism and animism: A psychometric test of the structure of Burmese Theravada Buddhism


Stanford, Mark; Jong, Jonathan (2019), Beyond Buddhism and animism: A psychometric test of the structure of Burmese Theravada Buddhism, Dryad, Dataset,


Anthropologists and religious scholars have long debated the relationship between doctrinal Theravada Buddhism, so-called ‘animism’, and other folk practices in southeast Asian societies. A variety of models of this relationship have been proposed on the basis of ethnographic evidence. We provide the first psychometric and quantitative evaluation of these competing models, using a new scale developed for this purpose, the Burmese Buddhist Religiosity Scale. Having tested existing hypotheses in our first study (n = 2285) we formulated an alternative model, which was then tested in our second study (n = 3377). We argue that this model provides support for a two-dimensional distinction between great and little traditions, shedding light on decades-old theoretical debates. Far from being in conflict, the transnational religious tradition of the literati and the variegated religious practices of locals appear to be reflected in two complementary dimensions of religiosity. This distinction has been heretofore neglected in psychometric research, but arguably merits attention beyond Buddhism, in the psychology of religion more generally. Our findings suggest that, insofar as research on religiosity relies on doctrinal pronouncements denigrating little traditions as mere superstition, it may be blinded to a crucial dimension of religious life.

Usage Notes

Items for the Burmese Buddhist Religiosity Scale (BBRS) are labelled as in the article.

In study 1, the 24 items beginning with 'BuddhismAttitudes' are the 24 items of Thanissaro's Scale of Attitudes to Buddhism (TSAB), in the order in which they are listed in Thanissaro (2016).