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Geranylgeraniol prevents zoledronic acid-mediated reduction of viable mesenchymal stem cells via induction of Rho-dependent YAP activation

Citation

Singhatanadgit, Weerachai; Hankamolsiri, Weerawan; Janvikul, Wanida (2021), Geranylgeraniol prevents zoledronic acid-mediated reduction of viable mesenchymal stem cells via induction of Rho-dependent YAP activation, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.wstqjq2jq

Abstract

Long-term use of zoledronic acid (ZA) increases the risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ). This may be attributed to ZA-mediated reduction of viable mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). ZA inhibits protein geranylgeranylation, thus suppressing cell viability and proliferation. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), which is a naturally found intermediate compound in the mevalonate pathway, has positive effects against ZA. However, precise mechanisms by which GGOH may help preserve stem cell viability against ZA are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytoprotective mechanisms of GGOH against ZA. The results showed that while ZA dramatically decreased the number of viable MSCs, GGOH prevented this negative effect. GGOH-rescued ZA-exposed MSCs formed mineralization comparable to that produced by normal MSCs. Mechanistically, GGOH preserved the number of viable MSCs by its reversal of ZA-mediated Ki67+ MSC number reduction, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, GGOH prevented ZA-suppressed RhoA activity and YAP activation. The results also established the involvement of Rho-dependent YAP and YAP-mediated CDK6 in the cytoprotective ability of GGOH against ZA. In conclusion, GGOH preserves a pool of viable MSCs with osteogenic potency against ZA by rescuing the activity of Rho-dependent YAP activation, suggesting GGOH as a promising agent and YAP as a potential therapeutic target for MRONJ.