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Dataset for: The role of geology in creating stream climate-change refugia along climate gradients

Citation

Ishiyama, Nobuo (2022), Dataset for: The role of geology in creating stream climate-change refugia along climate gradients, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.x95x69pmd

Abstract

Identifying climate-change refugia is a key adaptation strategy for reducing global warming impacts. Knowledge of the effects of underlying geology on thermal regime along climate gradients and the ecological responses to the geology-controlled thermal regime is essential to plan appropriate climate adaptation strategies. The dominance of volcanic rocks in the watershed is used as a landscape-scale surrogate for cold groundwater inputs to clarify the importance of underlying geology. Using statistical models, we explored the relationship between watershed geology and the mean summer water temperature of mountain streams along climate gradients in the Japanese archipelago. Summer water temperature was explained by the interaction between the watershed geology and climate in addition to independent effects. The cooling effect associated with volcanic rocks was more pronounced in streams with less summer precipitation or lower air temperatures. We also examined the function of volcanic streams as cold refugia under contemporary and future climatic conditions. Community composition analyses revealed that volcanic streams hosted distinct stream communities composed of more cold-water species compared with non-volcanic streams. Scenario analyses revealed a geology-related pattern of thermal habitat loss for cold-water species. Non-volcanic streams rapidly declined in thermally suitable habitats for lotic sculpins even under the lowest emission scenario (RCP 2.6). In contrast, most volcanic streams will be sustained below the thermal threshold, especially for low and mid-level emission scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5). However, the distinct stream community in volcanic streams and geology-dependent habitat loss for lotic sculpins was not uniform and was more pronounced in areas with less summer precipitation or lower air temperatures. Although further studies are needed to understand underlying mechanisms of the interplay of watershed geology and climate, findings highlight that watershed geology, climate variability, and their interaction should be considered simultaneously for effective management of climate-change refugia in mountain streams. 

Methods

Definitions of the variable headings

Variable Explanation
Site Monitoring site
Region Monitoring region
Basin Monitoring basin
Year Monitoring year of water temperature
WT_℃ Mean summer water temperature (℃)
Volcanic_% Volcanic rocks in the watershed (%)
Agri_% Agricultural lands in the watershed (%)
CA_km2 Drainage area (km2)
Slope_% Stream slope (%)
Elev_m Site elevation (m)
AT_℃ Mean summer air temperature (℃)
Pricipi_mm Total summer precipitation (mm)
Depth_cm Mean water depth (cm)
Velocity_cm/s Mean current velocity (cm/s)
Substrate Substrate coarseness
DO_mg/l Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)
NO3-_mg/l NO3 (mg/l)

*Other columns' names indicate species names (e.g., Potamanthus.formosus).

Funding

JSPS