A mechanism for red coloration in vertebrates
Cite this dataset
Toomey, Matthew et al. (2022). A mechanism for red coloration in vertebrates [Dataset]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.xsj3tx9j9
Red coloration is a salient feature of the natural world. Many vertebrates produce red color by converting dietary yellow carotenoids into red ketocarotenoids via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that two enzymes, cytochrome P450 2J19 (CYP2J19) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1-like (BDH1L), are sufficient to catalyze this conversion. In birds, both enzymes are expressed at sites of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis (feather follicles and red cone photoreceptors), and genetic evidence implicates these enzymes in yellow/red color variation in feathers. In fish, homologs of CYP2J19 and BDH1L are required for ketocarotenoid production, and we show that these enzymes are sufficient to produce ketocarotenoids in cell culture and when ectopically expressed in fish skin. Finally, we demonstrate that the red-cone-enriched tetratricopeptide repeat protein 39B (TTC39B) enhances ketocarotenoid production when co-expressed with CYP2J19 and BDH1L. The discovery of this mechanism of ketocarotenoid biosynthesis has major implications for understanding the evolution of color diversity in vertebrates.
Chromatograms and spectra were collected by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis DAD detection. Tissue carotenoid content was measured by HPLC. Tissue lipid content was measured with a Miura 200 analyzer with reagent kits (I.S.E. S.r.l.; Guidonia, Italy; A-R0100000901, A-R0200001301, and A-R0200001401).
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National Science Foundation, Award: IOS 2037739
National Eye Institute, Award: R01 EY030075
National Institute of General Medical Sciences, Award: NIH R35 GM122471
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Award: NIFA Hatch #W4122
National Cancer Institute, Award: P30 CA016058
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Award: CEECINST/00014/2018/CP1512/CT0002
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Award: 2020.01405.CEECIND/CP1601/CT0011
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Award: 2020.01494.CEECIND
European Research Council, Award: 101000504
Portuguese national funds Transitory Norm contract, Award: DL57/2016/CP1440/CT0006
Portuguese national funds Transitory Norm contract, Award: PD/BD/114042/2015
Portuguese national funds Transitory Norm contract, Award: SFRH/BD/147030/2019
Portuguese national funds Transitory Norm contract, Award: PD/BD/128492/2017