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Pedicularis sudetica morphology

Cite this dataset

Robart, Bruce et al. (2022). Pedicularis sudetica morphology [Dataset]. Dryad.


Pedicularis sudetica Willd. can be a difficult complex to identify and classify using herbarium specimens.  Colors fade rendering corolla patterns indistinct.  Especially problematic is the presence of spots on the lobes of the lower lip and color patterns of the galea.   Spots are either clearly visible or so faded that only a few spots were visible on one or two flowers in the inflorescence.  Galeas are either unequivocally bicolored, solid, or indistinctly diffuse.  Other characters have been inconsistently applied by taxonomists and/or are difficult to discern.  All these factors combined only serve to confound taxon identity and classification and members of the complex have been classified as species, subspecies, or even varieties by different taxonomists. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of qualitative traits and principal component analysis (PCA) of quantitative traits was employed to explore the character and taxonomic structure of the group.  MCA revealed that only three characters are necessary to classify the four taxa of the complex.  No taxon structure was evident with PCA.  Abundance of intermediate specimens over a broad geographic range indicates hybridization is extensive among members of the complex and suggests that a subspecific classification of the group is appropriate. 


Direct observation and scoring of categorical characters were made from herbarium specimens.  Data analyzed with multiple correspondence analysis.

Flowers were carefully removed from herbarium specimen and treated with a 50:50 mixture of glycerin and water until floral parts were soft enough to manipulate and separate.  All floral parts, along with a metric scale bar, were digitally photographed with a macro lens.  Measurements in millimeters were made directly on the images using the tpsDig2 version 2.0 program (Rohlf 2017).  Data analyzed with principal component analysis.

Leaves were photographed while still attached to herbarium specimens and measured as described above for flowers.  Data analyzed with principal component analysis.

Usage notes

Files open with Excel and can be opened in SPSS for statistical analysis.