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Amoebocytes facilitate efficient carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the Cassiopea Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis

Citation

Lyndby, Niclas Heidelberg et al. (2020), Amoebocytes facilitate efficient carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the Cassiopea Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.z612jm69h

Abstract

The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea engages in symbiosis with photosynthetic microalgae that facilitate uptake and recycling of inorganic nutrients. In contrast to most other symbiotic cnidarians, algal endosymbionts in Cassiopea are not restricted to the gastroderm but are found in amoebocyte cells within the mesoglea. While symbiont-bearing amoebocytes are highly abundant, their role in nutrient uptake and cycling in Cassiopea remains unknown. By combining isotopic labelling experiments with correlated SEM and NanoSIMS imaging, we quantified the anabolic assimilation of inorganic carbon and nitrogen at the subcellular level in juvenile Cassiopea medusae bell tissue. Amoebocytes were clustered near the sub-umbrella epidermis and facilitated efficient assimilation of inorganic nutrients. Photosynthetically-fixed carbon was efficiently translocated between endosymbionts, amoebocytes and host epidermis at rates similar to or exceeding those observed in corals. The Cassiopea holobionts efficiently assimilated ammonium, while no nitrate assimilation was detected, possibly reflecting adaptation to highly dynamic environmental conditions of their natural habitat. The motile amoebocytes allow Cassiopea medusae to distribute their endosymbiont population to optimize access to light and nutrients, and transport nutrition between tissue areas. Amoebocytes thus play a vital role for assimilation and translocation of nutrients in Cassiopea, providing an interesting new model for studies of metabolic interactions in photosymbiotic marine organisms.

Funding

Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Award: 200021_179092

Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Award: GBMF9206