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Data from: We get by with a little help from our friends: shared adaptive variation provides a bridge to novel ecological specialists during adaptive radiation

Citation

Richards, Emilie; Martin, Christopher (2022), Data from: We get by with a little help from our friends: shared adaptive variation provides a bridge to novel ecological specialists during adaptive radiation, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.6078/D18H9B

Abstract

Adaptive radiations involve astounding bursts of phenotypic, ecological, and species diversity. However, the microevolutionary processes that underlie the origins of these bursts are still poorly understood. We report the discovery of an intermediate ‘wide-mouth’ scale-eating ecomorph in a sympatric radiation of Cyprinodon pupfishes, illuminating the transition from a widespread algae-eating generalist to a novel microendemic scale-eating specialist. We first show that this ecomorph occurs in sympatry with generalist C. variegatus and scale-eating specialist C. desquamator on San Salvador Island, Bahamas, but is genetically differentiated, morphologically distinct, and often consumes scales. We then compared the timing of selective sweeps on shared and unique adaptive variants in trophic specialists to characterize their adaptive walk. Shared adaptive regions swept first in both the specialist desquamator and the intermediate ‘wide-mouth’ ecomorph, followed by unique sweeps of introgressed variation in ‘wide-mouth’ and de novo variation in desquamator. The two scale-eating populations additionally shared 9% of their hard selective sweeps with molluscivores C. brontotheroides, despite no single common ancestor among specialists. Our work provides a new microevolutionary framework for investigating how major ecological transitions occur and illustrates how both shared and unique genetic variation can provide a bridge for multiple species to access novel ecological niches.

Funding

National Institutes of Health, Award: 5R01DE027052‐02

National Science Foundation, Award: 1938571