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Dietary ethanol ingestion by free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

Cite this dataset

Campbell, Christina; Maro, Aleksey; Weaver, Victoria; Dudley, Robert (2022). Dietary ethanol ingestion by free-ranging spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) [Dataset]. Dryad.


Ethanol within ripe and over-ripe fruit is produced naturally through the metabolic activity of fermentative yeasts.  As a consequence, frugivorous animals may chronically consume ethanol as part of their routine diet, although direct measurements of such exposure are lacking.  Here, we present data on ethanol concentrations within fruits of the Neotropical tree Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) that are eaten by Geoffroy's spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.  Of collected fruits that were partially consumed and then dropped by foraging monkeys, pulp-ethanol content was typically in the range of 1–2%; the percentage of pulp for consumed fruits was not significantly correlated with ethanol concentration of the pulp remaining within each fruit.  Urine samples from foraging spider monkeys were also evaluated for the ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS); five of six samples tested positive for both compounds.  In aggregate, these data indicate natural exposure to fruit-associated ethanol in a wild primate species.


See the published literature associated with this data.

Usage notes

The data provided here is for analysis of the Spondias mombin fruit ethanol data collected on the infrared spectrometer. See the README.txt file for further instructions. 


International Primatological Society

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Association of Retired Faculty California State University, Northridge

Department of Anthropology, California State University

College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, California State University