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Data for: Advanced infections by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus encourage whitefly vector colonization while discouraging non-vector aphid competitors

Citation

Mauck, Kerry; Chesnais, Quentin; Sun, Penglin (2021), Data for: Advanced infections by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus encourage whitefly vector colonization while discouraging non-vector aphid competitors, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.6086/D1JQ21

Abstract

Plant viruses can change hosts in ways that increase vector contacts, virion acquisition, and subsequent vector dispersal to susceptible hosts. Based on this, researchers have proposed that virus-induced phenotypes are the product of adaptations to “manipulate” hosts in ways that increase transmission. Theoretical models of virus spread in crops support this proposition; “manipulative” viruses spread faster and to a greater extent. However, both empirical and theoretical studies on manipulation are disproportionately focused on a few persistently transmitted pathogens, and rarely consider the broader ecological implications of virus infections . To address these knowledge gaps, we documented the effects of different stages of infection by an economically devastating, semi-persistently transmitted crinivirus, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus [CYSDV] on Cucumis melo (muskmelon) phenotypes, behavior and performance of whitefly vectors (Bemisia tabaci) and non-vector aphid competitors (Aphis gossypii). Whiteflies were strongly attracted to CYSDV-infected hosts in a symptomatic stage of disease , but not in an asymptomatic stage, and fed more easily on infected plants regardless of symptom s . In contrast, aphids tended to avoid infected hosts, fed for shorter periods of time, and produced fewer offspring on infected hosts . Metabolomics revealed that host manipulations by CYSDV do not rely on virus-induced shifts in leaf primary metabolites or volatiles but may involve changes to phloem architecture and other compounds not measured here . Our study demonstrates a sophisticated host manipulation by CYSDV, whereby infection discourages colonization by a non-vector competitor while inducing a suite of progressively more transmission-conducive changes that encourage virion acquisition by the vector.

Methods

METHODOLOGICAL INFORMATION

1. Description of methods used for collection/generation of data:

This dataset was collected through greenhouse and laboratory behavioral assays and laboratory chemical analytical assays at the University of California, Riverside Department of Entomology.

2. Methods for processing the data:

Data were processed using a series of generalized linear mixed models, non-parametric T-tests, and multivariate analyses to produce a manuscript accepted for publication in Journal of Pest Science.

3. Instrument- or software-specific information needed to interpret the data: None.

4. Standards and calibration information, if appropriate: None.

5. Environmental/experimental conditions: Experiments were carried out at ambient temperatures that ranged between 25 degrees Celsius and 29 degrees Celsius.

6. Describe any quality-assurance procedures performed on the data: Data were hand-checked by multiple researchers after entry.

7. People involved with sample collection, processing, analysis and/or submission: Quentin Chesnais, Penglin Sun, Kerry Mauck, Kristal Watrous.

Usage Notes

Date of data collection: Approximately 2018-02-01 to 2020-02-01

Geographic location of data collection: Riverside, CA 92521

 

SHARING/ACCESS INFORMATION

1. Licenses/restrictions placed on the data: None

2. Links to publications that cite or use the data: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-021-01394-z

3. Links to other publicly accessible locations of the data: None

4. Links/relationships to ancillary data sets: None

5. Was data derived from another source? No

6. Recommended citation for this dataset:

Mauck, Kerry; Chesnais, Quentin; Sun, Penglin (2021), Data for: Advanced infections by cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus encourage whitefly vector colonization while discouraging non-vector aphid competitors, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.6086/D1JQ21

 

DATA & FILE OVERVIEW

File List:

The data are contained in a single .xlsx file named “ALL_DATA.xlsx” with different datasets delineated by tabs. Tabs contain a brief title description of the contents. In all tabs, we use the following treatment codes:

CYSDV 4wpi = Infected with cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and assayed at four weeks post inoculation.

CYSDV 2wpi = Infected with cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and assayed at two weeks post inoculation.

Sham 4wpi = Non-infected but exposed to whiteflies for a sham inoculation treatment four weeks prior to assay time.

Sham 2wpi = Non-infected but exposed to whiteflies for a sham inoculation treatment two weeks prior to assay time.

 

Dataset descriptions by tab title:

A. Btabaci 4way choice contact: Raw counts and percentage responding to each treatment in four-way whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1) choice tests where contact with plants was permitted.

B. Agossypii 2way choice contact: Raw counts and percentage responding to each treatment in two-way aphid (Aphis gossypii) choice tests where contact with plants was permitted.

C. Btabaci 2way choice volatiles: Raw counts and percentage responding to each treatment in two-way whitefly choice tests where only volatile cues from plants were permitted. S#-# and CY#-# designations indicate individual plants used as the choices in each replicate.

D. Btabaci EPG: Raw EPG data for whiteflies. Treatment factors are infection status (virus) and time point post inoculation (week). Response variables are total probing time (s Pr), total time in pathway phase (s C), total time in the phloem salivation phase (s E1), total time in phloem sap ingestion phase (s E2), time to first phloem sap ingestion phase (t1E2), number of intracellular punctures performed during pathway phase (pd).

E. Agossypii EPG: Raw EPG data for aphids. Treatment factors are infection status (virus) and time point post inoculation (week). Response variables are total probing time (s Pr), total time in pathway phase (s C), total time in the phloem salivation phase (s E1), number of phloem sap ingestion phases (s E2), total time in phloem sap ingestion phase (s E2), time to first phloem sap ingestion phase (t1E2), number of intracellular punctures performed during pathway phase (pd).

F. Agossypii population growth: Aphid population counts after 11 days on infected and sham-inoculated plants. Treatment code refers to the individual plant, Treatment refers to the infection status (infected plants were between two and four weeks post-inoculation), Block refers to the experiment replication, and Aphid Number is the number of individual aphids on the plant after 11 days of population growth.

G. Btabaci oviposition: Whitefly egg deposition over a three day period of caging on plants. At left, data for 4wpi, at right data for 2wpi. Plant refers to the infection treatment, Eggs refers to the number of whitefly eggs deposited over 3 days, Repetition refers to the experiment replicate (A or B), and Leaf refers to the leaf used A=4th leaf from the crown, B = 5th leaf from the crown.

H. Amino Acids: Quantities of amino acids, in micrograms per gram of leaf tissue. Sample name refers to the individual plants, Virus Treatment refers to the infection status, Time Point refers to the weeks post CYSDV inoculation or sham inoculation (two or four), and Leaf Position refers to the sampling location (upper leaf #7 or 8, or lower leaf near the crown, usually leaf #4). Amino acid column headers are the response variables.

I. Sugars: Data as for “H” above, but with sugars as response variables. Amounts are corrected for plant weight.

J. Volatiles: Odor emissions from 4wpi infected and sham-inoculated plants. Sample Name refers to the individual plants used, Treatment refers to the infection status, Session refers to the replication of the experiment. Response variables are individual volatile compounds.

K. Leaf color: Data on whitefly settling on individual plant leaves from four-way choice tests. Box refers to the test arena used, Settling at 24h refers to the number of whiteflies arrested on the plant assayed for color, and % yellow is the reflectance of yellow wavelengths of light from the leaf surface.

 

 

Funding

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Award: CA-R-ENT-5144-H

California Department of Food and Agriculture, Award: 18-0001-065-sc

California Melon Research Board, Award: 2018-2020