Skip to main content
Dryad logo

Data for: Secondary nectar robbing by Lycaenidae and Riodinidae: opportunistic but not infrequent

Citation

Rankin, Erin; Rankin, David (2022), Data for: Secondary nectar robbing by Lycaenidae and Riodinidae: opportunistic but not infrequent, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.6086/D1Q38N

Abstract

Butterflies have rarely been reported in the literature to engage in secondary nectar robbing (consumption of nectar via slits in the corolla or nectar robbing holes. Here we report on observations of 4 taxa of butterflies that nectar rob from scarlet bugler (Penstemon centranthifolius).

Methods

Santa Rosa Mountains (Riverside County, CA) we observed a patch of blooming scarlet bugler (Plantaginaceae: Penstemon centranthifolius).We quantified visitation by Lepidoptera to  P. centranthifolius; we considered a butterfly to nectar at P. centranthifolius if it extended its proboscis and fed for > 1 sec. Visitation was classified as “legitimate” if the butterfly was perched at the corolla opening and its proboscis was extended into the corolla. Visitation was classified as “secondary nectar robbing” when the butterfly’s proboscis was extended into pre-existing nectar robbing holes (sensu Irwin et al 2010). Four species of butterflies were observed: Lycaenidae (California Hairstreak (Satyrium californica), Ceraunus Blue (Hemiargus ceraunus), and Marine Blue (Leptotes marina)) and metalmarks Riodinidae (Apodemia sp.).

Usage Notes

Descriptions of variables are provided in the first tab (metadata) of the Excel file.

Funding

U.S. Department of Agriculture