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Spending and procedural data on voluntary medical male circumcision

Cite this dataset

Jaradeh, Katrin (2022). Spending and procedural data on voluntary medical male circumcision [Dataset]. Dryad.



Voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) reduces HIV acquisition by up to 60%.  Kenya has successfully scaled up VMMC to an estimated 91% of eligible men and boys in certain regions. Given that funding toward VMMC is expected to decline in the coming years, it is important to identify what models of care are most appropriate and efficient as new cohorts of men become eligible for VMMC. To this end, we compared the costs of facility-based VMMC and one within a rapid results initiative (RRI), a public health service scheduled during school holidays to perform many procedures over a short period.



We employed activity-based micro-costing to estimate the costs, from the implementer perspective, of facility-based VMMC and RRI-based VMMC conducted between October 2017 and September 2018 at 41 sites in Kisumu County, Kenya supported by the Family AIDS Care & Education Services (FACES). We conducted site visits and reviewed financial ledger and programmatic data to identify and quantify resources consumed and the number of VMMC procedures performed during routine care and RRIs. Ledger data were used to estimate fixed costs, recurring costs, and cost per circumcision (CPC) in United States dollar (USD). A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate CPC where we allocated 6 months of the ledger to facility-based and 6 months to RRI.



Overall, FACES spent $3,092,891 toward VMMC services and performed 42,139 procedures during the funding year. This included $2,644,910 in stable programmatic costs, $139,786  procedure costs, and $308,195 for RRI-specific activities. Over the year, 49% (n=20,625) of procedures were performed as part of routine care and 51% (n=21,514) were performed during the RRIs. Procedures conducted during facility-based cost $99.35 per circumcision, those conducted during the RRIs cost $48.51 per circumcision, and according to our sensitivity analysis, CPC for facility-based ranges from $99.35 to $287.24 and for RRI costs ranged from $29.81 to $48.51.



The cost of VMMC during the RRI was substantially lower than unit costs reported in previous costing studies. We conclude that circumcision campaigns, such as the RRI, offer an efficient and sustainable approach to VMMC.


University of California, San Francisco