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Annual Ice Velocity of the Greenland Ice Sheet (1991-2000)


Mouginot, Jeremie et al. (2019), Annual Ice Velocity of the Greenland Ice Sheet (1991-2000), Dryad, Dataset,


We derive surface ice velocity using data from 16 satellite sensors deployed by 6 different space agencies. The list of sensors is given in the Table S1. The SAR data are processed from raw to single look complex using the GAMMA processor ( All measurements rely on consecutive images where the ice displacement is estimated from tracking or interferometry (Joughin et al. 1998, Michel and Rignot 1999, Mouginot et al. 2012). Surface ice motion is detected using a speckle tracking algorithm for SAR instruments and feature tracking for Landsat. The cross-correlation program for both SAR and optical images is ampcor from the JPL/Caltech repeat orbit interferometry package (ROI_PAC). We assemble a composite ice velocity mosaic at 150 m posting using our entire speed database as described in Mouginot et al. 2017 (Fig. 1A). The ice velocity maps are also mosaicked in annual maps at 150 m posting, covering July, 1st to June, 30th of the following year, i.e. centered on January, 1st (12) because a majority of historic data were acquired in winter season, hence spanning two calendar years.
We use Landsat-1&2/MSS images between 1972 and 1976 and combine image pairs up to 1 years apart to measure the displacement of surface features between images as described in Dehecq et al., 2015 or Mouginot et al. 2017. We use the 1978 2-m orthorectified aerial images to correct the geolocation of Landsat-1 and -2 images (Korsgaard et al., 2016). Between 1984 and 1991, we process Landsat-4&5/TM image pairs acquired up to 1-year apart. Only few Landsat-4 and -5 images (~3%) needed geocoding refinement using the same 1978 reference as used previously. Between 1991 and 1998, we process radar images from the European ERS-1/2, with a repeat cycle varying from 3 to 36 days depending on the mission phase. Between 1999 and 2013, we used Landsat-7, ASTER, RADARSAT-1/2, ALOS/PALSAR, ENVISAT/ASAR to determine surface velocity (Joughin et al., 2010; Howat, I. 2017; Rignot and Mouginot, 2012). After 2013, we use Landsat-8, Sentinel-1a/b and RADARSAT-2 (Mouginot et al., 2017). All synthetic aperture radar (SAR) datasets are processed assuming surface parallel flow using the digital elevation model (DEM) from the Greenland Mapping Project (GIMP; Howat et al., 2014) and calibrated as described in Mouginot et al., 2012, 2017. Data were provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), the EU Copernicus program (through ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SAR data acquisitions were coordinated by the Polar Space Task Group (PSTG). Errors are estimated based on sensor resolution and time lapse between consecutive images as described in Mouginot et al. 2017. 


Dehecq, A, Gourmelen, N, Trouve, E (2015). Deriving large-scale glacier velocities from a complete satellite archive: Application to the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya. Remote Sensing of Environment, 162, 55-66. 

Howat IM, Negrete A, Smith BE (2014) The greenland ice mapping project (gimp) land classification and surface elevation data sets. The Cryosphere 8(4):1509-1518.

Howat, I (2017). MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Velocity: Selected Glacier Site Velocity Maps from Optical Images, Version 2. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center. 

Joughin, I., B. Smith, I. Howat, T. Scambos, and T. Moon. (2010). Greenland Flow Variability from Ice-Sheet-Wide Velocity Mapping, J. of Glac.. 56. 415-430. 

Joughin IR, Kwok R, Fahnestock MA (1998) Interferometric estimation of three dimensional ice-flow using ascending and descending passes. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36(1):25-37.

Joughin, I, Smith S, Howat I, and Scambos T (2015). MEaSUREs Greenland Ice Sheet Velocity Map from InSAR Data, Version 2. [Indicate subset used]. Boulder, Colorado USA. NASA National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center.

Michel R, Rignot E (1999) Flow of Glaciar Moreno, Argentina, from repeat-pass Shuttle Imaging Radar images: comparison of the phase correlation method with radar interferometry. J. Glaciol. 45(149):93-100.

Mouginot J, Scheuchl B, Rignot E (2012) Mapping of ice motion in Antarctica using synthetic-aperture radar data. Remote Sens. 4(12):2753-2767.

Mouginot J, Rignot E, Scheuchl B, Millan R (2017) Comprehensive annual ice sheet velocity mapping using landsat-8, sentinel-1, and radarsat-2 data. Remote Sensing 9(4).

Rignot E, Mouginot J (2012) Ice flow in Greenland for the International Polar Year 2008-
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