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Data from: At least some meiofaunal species are not everywhere. Indication of geographic, ecological and geological barriers affecting the dispersion of species of Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea)

Citation

Leasi, Francesca; Andrade, S.C.; Norenburg, Jon (2016), Data from: At least some meiofaunal species are not everywhere. Indication of geographic, ecological and geological barriers affecting the dispersion of species of Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea), Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.q3j73

Abstract

Most meiofaunal species are known to have a broad distribution with no apparent barriers to their dispersion. However, different morphological and/or molecular methods supported patterns of diversity and distribution that may be different among taxa while also conflicting within the same group. We accurately assessed the patterns of geographic distribution in actual genetic species of a marine meiofaunal animal model: Ototyphlonemertes. Specimens were collected from several sites around Europe, Northern and Central America, Southern America, Pacific Islands and Asia. We sequenced regions of two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. Using single-gene, a concatenated data set, multilocus approaches and different DNA taxonomy methods, we disentangled the actual diversity and the spatial structures of haplotypes and tested the possible correlation between genetic diversity and geographic distance. The results show (i) the importance of using several genes to uncover both diversity and highlight phylogeographic relationships among species and that (ii) independent genetic evolutionary entities have a narrower distribution than morphological species. Moreover, (iii) a Mantel test supported a positive correlation between genetic and geographical distance. By sampling from the two sides of Isthmus of Panama, we were additionally able to identify lineage divergence times that are concordant with vicariance mechanisms caused by the geological closure of the seaway across the Isthmus. We therefore propose that in addition to distance, other geological and ecological conditions are also barriers to the dispersion of and gene flow in marine meiofaunal organisms.

Usage Notes

Location

South America
Central America
Asia
Europe
North America