Data from: A unique feeding strategy of the extinct marine mammal Kolponomos: convergence on sabretooths and sea otters
Tseng, Z. Jack; Grohé, Camille; Flynn, John J. (2016), Data from: A unique feeding strategy of the extinct marine mammal Kolponomos: convergence on sabretooths and sea otters, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.184s0
Mammalian molluscivores feed mainly by shell-crushing or suction-feeding. The extinct marine arctoid, Kolponomos, has been interpreted as an otter-like shell-crusher based on similar dentitions. However, neither the masticatory biomechanics of the shell-crushing adaptation, nor the way Kolponomos may have captured hard-shelled prey, have been tested. Based on mandibular symphyseal morphology shared by Kolponomos and sabretoothed carnivores, we hypothesize a sabretooth-like mechanism for Kolponomos prey-capture, whereby the mandible functioned as an anchor. Torque generated from jaw closure and head flexion was used to dislodge prey by prying, with prey then crushed using cheek teeth. We test this hypothesized feeding sequence using phylogenetically-informed biomechanical simulations and shape analyses, and find a strongly supported, shared high mandibular stiffness in simulated prey-capture bites and mandibular shape in Kolponomos and the sabretoothed cat Smilodon. These two distantly related taxa converged on using mandibles to anchor cranial torquing forces when prying substrate-bound prey in the former and sabre-driving forces during prey-killing in the latter. Simulated prey-crushing bites indicate that Kolponomos and sea otters exhibit alternative structural stiffness-bite efficiency combinations in mandibular biomechanical adaptation for shell-crushing. This unique feeding system of Kolponomos exemplifies a mosaic of form-function convergence relative to other Carnivora.