Data from: Aerobic power and flight capacity in birds: a phylogenetic test of the heart-size hypothesis
Nespolo, Roberto F. et al. (2017), Data from: Aerobic power and flight capacity in birds: a phylogenetic test of the heart-size hypothesis, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1th6k
Flight capacity is one of the most important innovations in animal evolution; it only evolved in insects, birds, mammals and the extinct pterodactyls. Given that powered flight represents a demanding aerobic activity, an efficient cardiovascular system is essential for the continuous delivery of oxygen to the pectoral muscles during flight. It is well known that the limiting step in the circulation is stroke volume (the volume of blood pumped from the ventricle to the body during each beat), which is determined by the size of the ventricle. Thus, the fresh mass of the heart represents a simple and repeatable anatomic measure of aerobic power of an animal. Although several authors have already compared heart masses across bird species, a phylogenetic comparative analysis of these comparisons is still lacking. Compiling heart sizes for 915 species and applying several statistical procedures controlling for body size and/or testing for adaptive trends in the dataset (e.g., model selection approaches, phylogenetic generalized linear models), we found that (residuals of) heart sizes are consistently associated with four categories of flight capacity. In general, our results indicate that species exhibiting continuous hovering flight (i.e., hummingbirds) have substantially larger hearts than do other groups, that species that use flapping flight and gliding show intermediate values, and that species categorized as poor flyers show the smallest values. Our study shows that at a broad scale, routine flight modes seem to have shaped the energetic requirements of birds sufficiently to be anatomically detected at the comparative level.