Data from: Not everything is black and white: color and behavioral variation reveal a continuum between cryptic and aposematic strategies in a polymorphic poison frog
Willink, Beatriz; Brenes-Mora, Esteban; Bolaños, Federico; Pröhl, Heike (2013), Data from: Not everything is black and white: color and behavioral variation reveal a continuum between cryptic and aposematic strategies in a polymorphic poison frog, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.43534
Aposematism and crypsis are often viewed as two extremes of a continuum of visual conspicuousness to predators. Theory predicts that behavioral and coloration conspicuousness should vary in tandem along the conspicuousness spectrum for antipredator strategies to be effective. Here we used visual modeling of contrast and behavioral observations to examine the conspicuousness of four populations of the granular poison frog, Oophaga granulifera, which exhibits almost continuous variation in dorsal color. The patterns of geographic variation in color, visual contrast, and behavior support a gradient of overall conspicuousness along the distribution of O. granulifera. Red and green populations, at the extremes of the color distribution, differ in all elements of color, contrast, and behavior, strongly reflecting aposematic and cryptic strategies. However, there is no smooth cline in any elements of behavior or coloration between the two extremes. Instead populations of intermediate colors attain intermediate conspicuousness by displaying different combinations of aposematic and cryptic traits. We argue that coloration divergence among populations may be linked to the evolution of a gradient of strategies to balance the costs of detection by predators and the benefits of learned aversion.