Data from: Z-DNA and Z-RNA in human disease
Herbert, Alan (2019), Data from: Z-DNA and Z-RNA in human disease, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.626tf4f
Left-handed Z-DNA/Z-RNA is bound with high affinity by the Zα domain protein family that includes ADAR (a double-stranded RNA editing enzyme), ZBP1 and viral orthologues regulating innate immunity. Loss of function mutations in ADAR p150 allow persistent activation of the interferon system by Alu dsRNAs and are causal for Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome. Heterodimers of ADAR and DICER1 regulate the switch from RNA- to protein-centric immunity. Loss of DICER1 function produces age related macular degeneration, a different type of Alu-mediated disease. The overlap of Z-forming sites with those for the signal recognition particle likely limits invasion of primate genomes by Alu retrotransposons.