Data from: Population genetics of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from central Mexico inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers
Pfeiler, Edward et al. (2016), Data from: Population genetics of overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus), from central Mexico inferred from mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.64m4n
Population genetic variation and demographic history in Danaus plexippus (L.), from Mexico were assessed based on analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI; 658 bp) and subunit II (COII; 503 bp) gene segments and seven microsatellite loci. The sample of 133 individuals included both migratory monarchs, mainly from four overwintering sites within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR) in central Mexico (states of Michoacán and México), and a nonmigratory population from Irapuato, Guanajuato. Haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were relatively low, averaging 0.466 and 0.00073, respectively, for COI, and 0.629 and 0.00245 for COII. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of the COI data set, which included additional GenBank sequences from a nonmigratory Costa Rican population, showed significant population structure between Mexican migratory monarchs and nonmigratory monarchs from both Mexico and Costa Rica, suggesting limited gene flow between the two behaviorally distinct groups. Interestingly, while the COI haplotype frequencies of the nonmigratory populations differed from the migratory, they were similar to each other, despite the great physical distance between them. Microsatellite analyses, however, suggested a lack of structure between the two groups, possibly owing to the number of significant deviations from Hardy Weinberg equilibrium resulting from heterzoygote deficiencies found for most of the loci. Estimates of demographic history of the combined migratory MBBR monarch population, based on the mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline analyses of the concatenated COI and COII data set (n = 89) suggested a population expansion dating to the late Pleistocene (~35,000 to 40,000 years before present) followed by a stable effective female population size (Nef) of about six million over the last 10,000 years.