Data from: Adult mortality probability and nest predation rates explain parental effort in warming eggs with consequences for embryonic development time
Martin, Thomas E. et al. (2015), Data from: Adult mortality probability and nest predation rates explain parental effort in warming eggs with consequences for embryonic development time, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.km646
Parental behavior and effort vary extensively among species. Life history theory suggests that age-specific mortality could cause this interspecific variation, but past tests have focused on fecundity as the measure of parental effort. Fecundity can cause costs of reproduction that confuse whether mortality is the cause or consequence of parental effort. We focus on a trait, parental time and effort in warming embryos, which varies widely among species of diverse taxa and is not tied to fecundity. We conducted studies on songbirds of four continents and show that time spent warming eggs varies widely among species and latitudes, and is not correlated with clutch size. Adult and offspring (nest) mortality explained most of the interspecific variation in time and effort that parents spend warming eggs measured by average egg temperatures. Parental effort in warming eggs is important because embryonic temperature can influence embryonic development period and, hence, exposure time to predation risk. We show through correlative evidence and experimental swapping of embryos between species that parentally induced egg temperatures cause interspecific variation in embryonic development period. The strong association of age-specific mortality with parental effort in warming eggs and the subsequent effects on embryonic development time are unique results that can advance understanding of broad geographic patterns of life history variation.
South Temperate: South Africa
South America: Venezuela