Data from: Sex differences in parental care: gametic investment, sexual selection and social environment
Liker, András; Freckleton, Robert P.; Remes, Vladimir; Székely, Tamás (2015), Data from: Sex differences in parental care: gametic investment, sexual selection and social environment, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.ks430
Male and female parents often provide different type and amount of care to their offspring. Three major drivers have been proposed to explain parental sex roles: (i) differential gametic investment by males and females that precipitates into sex difference in care, (ii) different intensity of sexual selection acting on males and females, and (iii) biased social environment that facilitates the more common sex to provide more care. Here we provide the most comprehensive assessment of these hypotheses using detailed parental care data from 792 bird species covering 126 families. We found no evidence for the gametic investment hypothesis: neither gamete sizes nor gamete production by males relative to females was related to sex difference in parental care. However, sexual selection correlated with parental sex roles, because the male share in care relative to female decreased with both extra-pair paternity and frequency of polygamy. Parental sex roles were also related to social environment, because male parental care increased with male-biased adult sex ratios. Taken together, our results are consistent with recent theories suggesting that gametic investment is not tied to parental sex roles, and highlight the importance of both sexual selection and adult sex ratios in influencing parental sex roles.