Data from: Admixture and the organization of genetic diversity in a butterfly species complex revealed through common and rare genetic variants
Gompert, Zachariah et al. (2020), Data from: Admixture and the organization of genetic diversity in a butterfly species complex revealed through common and rare genetic variants, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.pq93h
Detailed information about the geographic distribution of genetic and genomic variation is necessary to better understand the organization and structure of biological diversity. In particular, spatial isolation within species and hybridization between them can blur species boundaries and create evolutionary relationships that are inconsistent with a strictly bifurcating tree model. Here we analyze genome-wide DNA sequence and genetic ancestry variation in Lycaeides butterflies to quantify the effects of admixture and spatial isolation on how biological diversity is organized in this group. We document geographically widespread and pervasive historic admixture, with more restricted recent hybridization. This includes evidence supporting previously known and unknown instances of admixture. The genome composition of admixed individuals varies much more among than within populations, and tree- and genetic ancestry-based analyses indicate that multiple distinct admixed lineages or populations exist. We find that most genetic variants in Lycaeides are rare (minor allele frequency < 0.5%). Because the spatial and taxonomic distributions of alleles reflect demographic and selective processes since mutation, rare alleles, which are presumably younger than common alleles, were spatially and taxonomically restricted compared to common variants. Thus, we show patterns of genetic variation in this group are multifaceted, and we argue that this complexity challenges simplistic notions concerning the organization of biological diversity into discrete, easily delineated, and hierarchically structured entities.