Two new hybrid populations expand the swordtail hybridization model system
Powell, Daniel et al. (2021), Two new hybrid populations expand the swordtail hybridization model system, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.pzgmsbcmn
Natural hybridization events provide unique windows into the barriers that keep species apart as well as the consequences of their breakdown. Here we characterize hybrid populations formed between the northern swordtail fish Xiphophorus cortezi and X. birchmanni from collection sites on two rivers. We use simulations and new genetic reference panels to develop sensitive and accurate local ancestry calling in this novel system. Strikingly, we find that hybrid populations on both rivers consist of two genetically distinct subpopulations: a cluster of pure X. birchmanni individuals and one of phenotypically intermediate hybrids that derive ~85-90% of their genome from X. cortezi. Simulations suggest that initial hybridization occurred ~150 generations ago at both sites, with little evidence for contemporary gene flow between subpopulations. This population structure is consistent with strong assortative mating between individuals of similar ancestry. The patterns of population structure uncovered here mirror those seen in hybridization between X. birchmanni and its sister species, X. malinche, indicating an important role for assortative mating in the evolution of hybrid populations. Future comparisons will provide a window into the shared mechanisms driving the outcomes of hybridization not only among independent hybridization events between the same species but also across distinct species pairs.