Sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B in monozygotic twins: insights into the pathogenesis of methylation defects
Keidai, Yamato et al. (2021), Sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B in monozygotic twins: insights into the pathogenesis of methylation defects, Dryad, Dataset, https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.5mkkwh76v
Context: Sporadic pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1B (sporPHP1B) is an imprinting disease without a defined genetic cause, characterized by broad methylation changes in differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the GNAS gene.
Objective: This work aims to provide insights into the causative event leading to the GNAS methylation defects through comprehensive molecular genetic analyses of a pair of female monozygotic twins concordant for sporPHP1B who were conceived naturally i.e., without assisted reproductive techniques.
Methods: Using the leukocyte genome of the twins and family members, we performed targeted bisulfite sequencing, methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (MSRE)-qPCR, whole-genome sequencing (WGS), high-density SNP array, and Sanger sequencing.
Results: Methylation analyses by targeted bisulfite sequencing and MSRE-qPCR revealed almost complete loss of methylation at the GNAS AS, XL, and A/B DMRs and gain of methylation at the NESP55 DMR in the twins, but not in other family members. Except for the GNAS locus, we did not find apparent methylation defects at other imprinted genome loci of the twins. WGS, SNP array, and Sanger sequencing did not detect the previously described genetic defects associated with familial PHP1B. Sanger sequencing also ruled out any novel genetic alterations in the entire NESP55/AS region. However, the analysis of 28 consecutive SNPs could not exclude the possibility of paternal heterodisomy in a span of 22 kb comprising exon NESP55 and AS exon 5.
Conclusion: Our comprehensive analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins with sporPHP1B ruled out all previously described genetic causes. Twin concordance indicates that the causative event was an imprinting error earlier than the timing of monozygotic twinning.